They include that Homer was blind (taking as self-referential a passage describing the blind bard Demodocus[15][16]), that he was born in Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works (the "Homerica"), that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, and various explanations for the name "Homer". download word file, 5 pages, 0.0. [22] In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more widely read than Homer and Homer was often seen through a Virgilian lens. Hi, I'm new to the historical side of mythology, but I have a question: did Homer believe in or worship the gods he wrote about, or were … Homer, rather, was an idea. ), Homeric formulae ('and then answered [him/her], Agamemnon, king of men', 'when the early-born rose-fingered Dawn came to light', 'thus he/she spoke'), simile, type scenes, ring composition and repetition. [22][21][20] The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems that had been so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Odyssey picks up after the fall of Troy. [4] It is generally accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. [49], Most scholars now agree that the Homeric poems depict customs and elements of the material world that are derived from different periods of Greek history. Homer chose a description of Greek warriors in formation, facing the foe, taken from the Iliad. Other works have been attributed to Homer over the centuries, most notably the Homeric Hymns, but in the end, only the two epic works remain enduringly his. The reason I say that … [20][21][22] Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia. As a result, many busts and statues have been carved of Homer with thick curly hair and beard and sightless eyes. They point to earlier versions of the Odyssey in which Telemachus went in search of news of his father not to Menelaus in Sparta but to Idomeneus in Crete, in which Telemachus met up with his father in Crete and conspired with him to return to Ithaca disguised as the soothsayer Theoclymenus, and in which Penelope recognized Odysseus much earlier in the narrative and conspired with him in the destruction of the suitors. Least Proof: through the multitude of information that he has passed on to us through Illiad & Odyssey, which to a major extent … [40], Martin Litchfield West has argued that the Iliad echoes the poetry of Hesiod, and that it must have been composed around 660–650 BC at the earliest, with the Odyssey up to a generation later. [6][7] Most researchers believe that the poems were originally transmitted orally. These premises insured by a Sheltie in Training ,--- and Cooey.o "May the Good Lord take a likin' to you" Re: Did Homer exist… 0 Like 0 Tweet. Edgar Allan Poe was a writer and critic famous for his dark, mysterious poems and stories, including ‘The Raven,’ ‘The Black Cat’ and ‘The Tell-Tale Heart.’. In antiquity, a very large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia ("The Frog-Mouse War"), the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, and the Phocais. Some scholars insist that Homer was personally familiar with the plain of Troy, due to the geographical accuracy in the poem. Chances are that if a large war did occur, it was not at the scale of Homer’s war. If he was indeed a real person, he probably would’ve been a street poet that recited tales from memory. Homeric Greek shows features of multiple regional Greek dialects and periods, but is fundamentally based on Ionic Greek, in keeping with the tradition that Homer was from Ionia. [5], The poems are in Homeric Greek, also known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries; the predominant influence is Eastern Ionic. Most scholars attribute the book divisions to the Hellenistic scholars of Alexandria, in Egypt. That fact, paired with frequent mentions of local phenomena such as strong winds blowing from the northwest from the direction of Thrace, suggests, scholars feel, a familiarity with that region that could only mean Homer came from there. Little is known of Homer, who may not have been a single individual. Homer - Homer - Modern inferences: Modern scholars agree with the ancient sources only about Homer’s general place of activity. Reece, Steve. He was condemned to death for his Socratic method of questioning. The best place for “happy-ever-after” feelings is the kingdom of Camelot, ruled by King … Homer… The two best known ancient biographies of Homer are the Life of Homer by the Pseudo-Herodotus and the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. [30][31] The Neoanalysts sought to trace the relationships between the Homeric poems and other epic poems, which have now been lost, but of which modern scholars do possess some patchy knowledge. As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture. [61][62], 'Ring composition' or chiastic structure (when a phrase or idea is repeated at both the beginning and end of a story, or a series of such ideas first appears in the order A, B, C ... before being reversed as ... C, B, A) has been observed in the Homeric epics. Homer’s real life may remain a mystery, but the very real impact of his works continues to illuminate our world today. Guesses at his birth date range from 750 BC all the way back to 1200 BC, the latter because The Iliad encompasses the story of the Trojan War, so some scholars have thought it fit to put the poet and chronicler nearer to the time of that actual event. Homer on the other hand we do not know existed for sure. [21] At the other extreme, a few American scholars such as Gregory Nagy see "Homer" as a continually evolving tradition, which grew much more stable as the tradition progressed, but which did not fully cease to continue changing and evolving until as late as the middle of the second century BC. [26][27][21] Wolf and the "Analyst" school, which led the field in the nineteenth century, sought to recover the original, authentic poems which were thought to be concealed by later excrescences. [26][27][21] By around 1830, the central preoccupations of Homeric scholars, dealing with whether or not "Homer" actually existed, when and how the Homeric poems originated, how they were transmitted, when and how they were finally written down, and their overall unity, had been dubbed "the Homeric Question". [21] Fifty years later, the English scholar Richard Bentley concluded that Homer did exist, but that he was an obscure, prehistoric oral poet whose compositions bear little relation to the Iliad and the Odyssey as they have been passed down. Question / Discusssion. The Homeric epics are largely set in the east and center of the Mediterranean, with some scattered references to Egypt, Ethiopia and other distant lands, in a warlike society that resembles that of the Greek world slightly before the hypothesized date of the poems' composition. Today scholars use medieval manuscripts, papyri and other sources; some argue for a "multi-text" view, rather than seeking a single definitive text. Others, such as Martin West (1998–2000) or T.W. Opinion differs as to whether these occurrences are a conscious artistic device, a mnemonic aid or a spontaneous feature of human storytelling. [36] Contemporary scholars continue to debate the date of the poems. Though the crowd acclaimed Homer victor, the judge awarded Hesiod the prize; the poet who praised husbandry, he said, was greater than the one who told tales of battles and slaughter. They were not written … Ancient Greek statesman Pericles, leader of Athens from 460–429 B.C., organized the construction of the Parthenon and developed a democracy based on majority rule. “Homer and Sophocles saw clearly, felt keenly, and refrained from much,” wrote Lane Cooper in The Greek Genius and Its Influence: Select Essays and Extracts in 1917, ascribing an emotional life to the writer. [22] The Iliad and the Odyssey were widely used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures. It’s hard to imagine that there was a war on that scale, with thousands of … These claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world. The nineteenth-century edition of Arthur Ludwich mainly follows Aristarchus's work, whereas van Thiel's (1991, 1996) follows the medieval vulgate. But seven cities lay claim to Homer as their native son. Tolkien's The Fall of Gondolin. Such helmets were not worn in Homer's time, but were commonly worn by aristocratic warriors between 1600 and 1150 BC. The stories provide an important insight into early human society, and illustrate, in some aspects, how little has changed. Keywords iliad, iliad, Homer, Trojan War, Troy. [21] A small group of scholars opposed to the Analysts, dubbed "Unitarians", saw the later additions as superior, the work of a single inspired poet. Linguistic analysis suggests that the Iliad was composed slightly before the Odyssey, and that Homeric formulae preserve older features than other parts of the poems. makes use of The Odyssey. [21] It did not die out entirely, but it came to be increasingly seen as a discredited dead end. The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. The Greek poet Homer was born sometime between the 12th and 8th centuries BC, possibly somewhere on the coast of Asia Minor. Then, each of the poets was invited to recite the best passage from their work. For the Greeks, Homer was a godfather of their national culture, chronicling its mythology and collective memory in rich rhythmic tales that have permeated the collective imagination. Sometime between 12-8th BC, it is believed that Homer was born along the Coast of Asia Minor but beyond those scant details, Homer’s history largely remains a mystery. [22] The earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. [28], The Homeric epics are written in an artificial literary language or 'Kunstsprache' only used in epic hexameter poetry. In short, it is difficult to give someone a birth date when he was born before there was a calendar. Oral epics cannot be transmitted verbatim. [21] It is also generally agreed that each poem was composed mostly by a single author, who probably relied heavily on older oral traditions. [21] Nearly all scholars agree that the Doloneia in Book X of the Iliad is not part of the original poem, but rather a later insertion by a different poet. [71] Some trace the divisions back further to the Classical period. [28], In the Iliad 10.260–265, Odysseus is described as wearing a helmet made of boar's tusks. Did Homer's Troy really exist? [22], In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems. The poem takes its name from the city of Troy, which is als… The earliest fragments of The Iliad date from about 200 BC. Part of the problem is that Homer lived before a chronological dating system was in place. The Iliad and the Odyssey were wid… Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary. The historical facts of Homer's life remain unknown and will most likely never be known. Homer Has existed & it is scientifically & Historically proven! Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Herodotus, the ancient historian, who lived from 484 BC to 425 BC, placed Homer’s year of birth four centuries before his own, making it around 850 BC. [22] Perhaps partially because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. [32], Most contemporary scholars, although they disagree on other questions about the genesis of the poems, agree that the Iliad and the Odyssey were not produced by the same author, based on "the many differences of narrative manner, theology, ethics, vocabulary, and geographical perspective, and by the apparently imitative character of certain passages of the Odyssey in relation to the Iliad. [21] Starting in around 1928, Milman Parry and Albert Lord, after their studies of folk bards in the Balkans, developed the "Oral-Formulaic Theory" that the Homeric poems were originally composed through improvised oral performances, which relied on traditional epithets and poetic formulas. Homer was expected to win, and answered all of Hesiod's questions and puzzles with ease. The 'Analyst' school had considered these repetitions as un-Homeric, whereas Arend interpreted them philosophically. [25], In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a scathing attack on the Homeric poems, declaring that they were incoherent, immoral, tasteless, and without style, that Homer never existed, and that the poems were hastily cobbled together by incompetent editors from unrelated oral songs. [22] Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries, extensions and scholia to Homer, especially in the twelfth century. The other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, and that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition. He was right. Allen, fall somewhere between these two extremes.[75]. Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484–425 BC), often called the father of history, placed Homer several centuries before himself, around 850 BC. Did a Greek warrior refuse to fight? [22] Homer's wisdom became so widely praised that he began to acquire the image of almost a prototypical philosopher. Euripides was one of the great Athenian playwrights and poets of ancient Greece, known for the many tragedies he wrote, including 'Medea' and 'The Bacchae.'. [22] The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. [60], The so-called 'type scenes' (typische Scenen), were named by Walter Arend in 1933. Homer of course is familiar to us as composer of the Iliad, the account of the Trojan War, ... and Hera exist, but he does give a proof, in the last book of the last work he composed, the Laws, that there are … Some believe Homer was illiterate and had them recorded by scribes during his lifetime. [10][11], Today only the Iliad and Odyssey are associated with the name 'Homer'. [23], As a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts of the poems that were culturally or linguistically difficult. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. It is actually debated among historians, and there is a body of evidence to suggest that Homer may have been a title, rather than a … [20][22][23] They were the first literary works taught to all students. King Arthur. If he did exist, he lived ca. ), "Homer and Oral Tradition: The Type-Scene", Works by Homer at Perseus Digital Library, "CLAS3152 Further Greek Literature II: Aristotle's Poetics: Notes on Homer's Iliad and Odyssey", Dictys Cretensis Ephemeridos belli Trojani, Daretis Phrygii de excidio Trojae historia, The Trojan War Will Not Take Place (Tiger at the Gates), The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles, Menelaus supporting the body of Patroclus,, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Some scholars believe that Homer was not an individual, but rather, a name that stood in for the group of people that penned and told his powerful works. The Trojan War’s Legacy. Homer (/ˈhoʊmər/; Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος Greek pronunciation: [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the presumed author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the foundational works of ancient Greek literature. The two narrative poems pop up throughout modern literature: Homer’s The Odyssey has parallels in James Joyce’s Ulysses, and his tale of Achilles in The Iliad is echoed in J.R.R. [28][50][51] For instance, the heroes in the poems use bronze weapons, characteristic of the Bronze Age in which the poems are set, rather than the later Iron Age during which they were composed;[28][50][51] yet the same heroes are cremated (an Iron Age practice) rather than buried (as they were in the Bronze Age). Some contemporary scholars think the destruction of Troy VIIa circa 1220 BC was the origin of the myth of the Trojan War, others that the poem was inspired by multiple similar sieges that took place over the centuries. [21], Some ancient scholars believed Homer to have been an eyewitness to the Trojan War; others thought he had lived up to 500 years afterwards. [41][42][21] He also interprets passages in the Iliad as showing knowledge of historical events that occurred in the ancient Near East during the middle of the seventh century BC, including the destruction of Babylon by Sennacherib in 689 BC and the Sack of Thebes by Ashurbanipal in 663/4 BC. But there's actually evidence that, until modern times, humans didn't actually see the colour blue. Even if The Iliad itself seems unfamiliar, the story of the siege of Troy, the Trojan War and Paris’ kidnapping of Helen, the world’s most beautiful woman, are all familiar characters or scenarios. This is often considered to be the greatest literary mystery. [22] Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. [17][18], In the early 4th century BC Alcidamas composed a fictional account of a poetry contest at Chalcis with both Homer and Hesiod. "Plato tells us that in his time many believed that Homer was the educator of all Greece. A variation on the group idea stems from the fact that storytelling was an oral tradition and Homer compiled the stories, then recited them to memory. [26][27][21] After being written down, Wolf maintained that the two poems were extensively edited, modernized, and eventually shaped into their present state as artistic unities. [75], The first printed edition of Homer was produced in 1488 in Milan, Italy. Did Homer write The Iliad?Did he even exist? He may have composed them; but as oral works memorised by poets and passed on by word of mouth. [37][38] Barry B. Powell dates the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey to sometime between 800 and 750 BC, based on the statement from Herodotus, who lived in the late fifth century BC, that Homer lived four hundred years before his own time "and not more" (καὶ οὐ πλέοσι), and on the fact that the poems do not mention hoplite battle tactics, inhumation, or literacy. The dialect that The Iliad and The Odyssey are written in is considered Asiatic Greek, specifically Ionic. These habits aid the extemporizing bard, and are characteristic of oral poetry. My claim is that the poems, especially The Iliad, have their beginnings around 2000 B.C.—about 1,000 or 1,200 years earlier than most people say Homer existed. [citation needed] Some claims were established early and repeated often. Personally, I find the internal evidence compelling. As Kevin Loria reported for Business Insider back in 2015, the evidence dates all the way back to the 1800s.. That's when scholar William Gladstone - who later went on to be the Prime Minister of Great Britain - noticed that, in the Odyssey, Homer … [74][22] The idea that the Homeric poems were originally transmitted orally and first written down during the reign of Peisistratos is referenced by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero and is also referenced in a number of other surviving sources, including two ancient Lives of Homer. [20][22] During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, many interpreters, especially the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom. [66] Albert Lord noted that the Balkan bards that he was studying revised and expanded their songs in their process of dictating. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, together with Socrates and Plato, laid much of the groundwork for western philosophy. Did Homer believe in the Greek gods? No one will ever be able to answer these questions; they exist in a poem and … But he wasn't the first, nor was he the last. Homer’s Iliad demonstrates that in a realistic society, there is no such thing as a complete hero, and that true heroism does not exist. [21] Neoanalysts hold that knowledge of earlier versions of the epics can be derived from anomalies of structure and detail in the surviving versions of the Iliad and Odyssey. Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher considered to be the main source of Western thought. The most concrete piece of ancient evidence is that his descendants, the … He is one of the most influential authors of all time, for the two epics provided the basis of Greek education and culture throughout the Classical age … The Olympic Games of classical Greece marked an epoch, with 776 BC as a starting point by which to measure out four-year periods for the event. [2][3][4], The Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when, where and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. [8] From antiquity until the present day, the influence of Homeric epic on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music, art and film. These anomalies point to earlier versions of the Iliad in which Ajax played a more prominent role, in which the Achaean embassy to Achilles comprised different characters, and in which Patroclus was actually mistaken for Achilles by the Trojans. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. All this speculation about who he was has inevitably led to what is known as the Homeric Question—whether he actually existed at all. They become fixed only when written down.
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