The latter route is less cognitively demanding, and the routes of attitude change are typically operationalized in the ELM using the argument quality and peripheral cues constructs respectively. While the principal’s goal is quick and effective completion of the assigned task, the agent’s goal may be working at its own pace, avoiding risks, and seeking self-interest (such as personal pay) over corporate interests. Likewise, theories may have implicit cultural assumptions (e.g., whether they apply to individualistic or collective cultures), temporal assumptions (e.g., whether they apply to early stages or later stages of human behavior), and spatial assumptions (e.g., whether they apply to certain localities but not to others). This deductive approach leverages the rich inventory of social science theories developed by prior theoreticians, and is an efficient way of building new theories by building on existing ones. Swiftness, severity, and certainty of punishments are the key constructs in GDT. However, theories can also have their own share of limitations. Explanations can be idiographic or nomothetic. Such asymmetry may lead to agency problems where the agent may not put forth the effort needed to get the task done (the moral hazard problem) or may misrepresent its expertise or skills to get the job but not perform as expected (the adverse selection problem). & Griffin, M. (2012) “Business Research Methods: with Qualtrics Printed Access Card” Cengage Learning p.38,  Fox, W. & Bayat, M.S. First, theories provide the underlying logic of the occurrence of natural or social phenomenon by explaining what are the key drivers and key outcomes of the target phenomenon and why, and what underlying processes are responsible driving that phenomenon. Constructs are conceptualized at the theoretical plane, while variables are operationalized and measured at the empirical (observational) plane. The ELM posits that one’s attitude may be shaped by two “routes” of influence, the central route and the peripheral route, which differ in the amount of thoughtful information processing or “elaboration” required of people (see Figure 4.5). Compounding the nature of the problem may be information asymmetry problems caused by the principal’s inability to adequately observe the agent’s behavior or accurately evaluate the agent’s skill sets. Innovations may include new technologies, new practices, or new ideas, and adopters may be individuals or organizations. Other editions 1983, 1996, 2005. We begin with the issue of the ontological status of a concept. Theories are explanations of a natural or social behavior, event, or phenomenon. 2) Descriptive - gathers descriptive data to describe what is really happening. Propositions are stated in declarative form and should ideally indicate a cause-effect relationship (e.g., if X occurs, then Y will follow). Constructs capture the “what” of theories (i.e., what concepts are important for explaining a phenomenon), propositions capture the “how” (i.e., how are these concepts related to each other), logic represents the “why” (i.e., why are these concepts related), and boundary conditions/assumptions examines the “who, when, and where” (i.e., under what circumstances will these concepts and relationships work). Theoretical Framework provides a broad explanation of the relationships that exists between concepts based on one theory. Hence, agency theory recommends using outcome-based contracts, such as a commissions or a fee payable upon task completion, or mixed contracts that combine behavior-based and outcome-based incentives. This is also an inductive approach that relies heavily on the inductive abilities of the researcher, and interpretation may be biased by researcher’s prior knowledge of the phenomenon being studied.
2020 concept of theory in research