This predisposes an individual to autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. It is then tempting to assume that the exponential increase in the prevalence of age-related pathology and the parallel increase in the deadly complications experienced by COVID-19 patients have a common background or are associated somehow otherwise. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 itself causes endothelial dysfunctions, including impaired ⋅NO production (Green, 2020). Previous authors: Marjorie A. Maddox, EdD, MSN, ARNP, ANP-C, and Holly Evans Madison, RN, MS. Theories of aging have been debated since the time of the ancient Greeks. Age-specific mortality and immunity patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 45 countries. Physiol. Vascular endothelial cells and dysfunctions: role of melatonin. This effect occurs even in persons with chronic limiting states such as rheumatoid arthritis. Indeed, the incidences of autoimmune disorders and systemic septic responses, which are associated with intravascular coagulation, increase in the elderly (Vadasz et al., 2013; Mayr et al., 2014; Starr and Saito, 2014). Theories of aging have been debated since the time of the ancient Greeks. Golubev, A. G. (2018). Biochim. Exercise as medicine for COVID-19: on PPAR with emerging pharmacotherapy. (2020). However, all DTs fall within a strikingly narrow common range. Nonstochastic theories hypothesize that aging is predetermined through programmed cell changes or through changes in the neuroendocrine or immunologic systems. As the effect continued through several generations of proteins, the end-product would not even resemble the original cell and its functional ability would be diminished (Sonneborn, 1979). Stochastic theories hypothesize that aging occurs randomly and persistently with time, through random error, free radicals, cross-links, “clinkers,” and wear and tear. Mechanisms of aging and potential role of selected polyphenols in extending healthspan. Cell Metab. Its low variability makes the doubling time (DT) of CFR (DT = ln2/Y) to vary only from 6 to 8 years, as has been shown in the papers referenced above, whose authors have recognized this mortality pattern as consistent with the dependency of general mortality on age, which is known in gerontology as the Gompertz law or model: where μ is mortality rate (also termed the force of mortality), t is the chronological age, and γ is interpreted as the rate of (demographic) aging. These theories generally view aging as occurring from a molecular, cellular, or even a systems point of view. This conclusion is at the same time disturbing as far as it relates to the gloomy phenomenon of aging. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.15.20066548, Barja, G. (2014). 32, 1836–1839. Metformin enhances autophagy and normalizes mitochondrial function to alleviate aging-associated inflammation. Aging 12, 8760–8765. Under this theory, aging is viewed as almost a preprogrammed process—a process thought to be vulnerable to stress or to an accumulation of injuries or trauma, which may actually accelerate it. Lipofuscin, a lipid- and protein-enriched pigmented material, has been found to accumulate in older adults’ tissues, and is commonly referred to as “age spots.” As the lipofuscin’s presence increases, healthy tissue is slowly deprived of oxygen and nutrient supply. Biologic Discuss the rationale for using an eclectic approach in the development of aging theories. doi: 10.1007/978-3-0348-7460-1_1, Beek, J. H. G. M., Kirkwood, T. B. L., and Bassingthwaighte, J. The involvement of mTORC1 in the prospective ability of putative anti-aging drugs to be useful in dealing with COVID-19 brings discussion to the alternative approach to aging, which treats it as programmed somehow. However, many scholars have concluded that no one definition or theory exists that explains all aspects of aging; rather, scientists have found that several theories may be combined to explain various aspects of the complex phenomena we call aging. Acute reversal of endothelial dysfunction in the elderly after antioxidant consumption. Nutrients 10:1821. doi: 10.3390/nu10121821. This hormone, secreted by the adrenal glands, diminishes over the lifetime of an individual. A 75, e30–e33. Res. Global patterns of human ageing. In the chemical terms, glucose is not unique in this regard. • Low rate of T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to a stimulus. Role of nitric oxide in inflammatory diseases. Why and how do we age? However, this is not the case with newly emerged or rapidly mutating infectious agents such as SARS-CoV-2 or influenza viruses. probability theories) maintain that ageing occurs as the result of chance or accidental events e.g. 173:113719. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2019.113719, Sadowska-Bartosz, I., and Bartosz, G. (2016). World J. In adult humans, the total mass of the endothelium is about 1 kg, and the endothelial surface is up to 7,000 m2 (Aird, 2013). Should, and how can, exercise be done during a coronavirus outbreak? doi: 10.7861/clinmed.2020-0252, Piskovatska, V., Strilbytska, O., Koliada, A., Vaiserman, A., and Lushchak, O. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The body produces antioxidants that scavenge the free radicals (Hayflick, 1996). Sci. Spermidine administration to rodents ameliorates age-associated pathology, including hypertension, and sperimidine-rich diets are associated with longevity in human populations (Madeo et al., 2018). No wonder that oxidative stress has been implicated in COVID-19 complications, decreased antioxidant defenses are thought to contribute to the increased vulnerability of the elderly to COVID-19, and antioxidants have been suggested as adjuvant means against COVID-19 (Abouhashem et al., 2020; Delgado-Roche and Mesta, 2020; Nasi et al., 2020; Panfoli, 2020). Influenced by both biology and sociology; address how a person responds to the tasks of his or her age. Rep. 10:16642. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-73777-8, Otsuki, T., Namatame, H., Yoshikawa, T., and Zempo-Miyaki, A. This results in an increased incidence of cancer in older adults. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2015.10.015, Golubev, A. Aging and cancer: is glucose a mediator between them? Biochim. Many of the medications ingested by the older population (such as antacids and coagulants) contain aluminum, as does the common cooking ingredient baking powder. J. Clin. The possible pathophysiology mechanism of cytokine storm in elderly adults with COVID-19 infection: the contribution of “inflame-aging”. When these by products accumulate, they damage the cell membrane, which decreases its efficiency. (2020). Correspondingly, doubling times related to CFR (DT) and to the total mortality rate in the general population (MRTD) are similar in all cases, in conformance to what has been shown earlier using less detailed data on COVID-19 epidemics in Italy, Spain and Sweden (Golubev and Sidorenko, 2020), China, South Korea, and USA (Santesmasses et al., 2020), and West Europe and North America in general (Guilmoto, 2020). Laxminarayan, R., Wahl, B., Dudala, S. R., Gopal, K., Mohan, C., Neelima, S., et al. Data points are constructed by dividing the numbers of reported deaths from COVID-19 binned in 5-years age intervals, which start from 30 years, by population sizes as of 2018 in the respective age intervals, which may be found in the Human Mortality Database2 (HMD) and by plotting the results against the middles of these intervals. doi: 10.1249/mss.0000000000001795, Colantuoni, A., Martini, R., Caprari, P., Ballestri, M., Capecchi, P. L., Gnasso, A., et al. 62:101091. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2020.101091, Furrer, R., and Handschin, C. (2020). Another hormone that has been receiving attention is dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The next transcription would again contain an error. Biochem. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.06.003. Define aging from a biologic, sociologic, and psychologic framework. (2020). Error Theory The biologic theories can be subdivided into two main divisions: stochastic and nonstochastic. Genetic Timers Stochastic theories (i.e. Accompanying these changes is a decrease in the body’s defense against foreign pathogens, which manifests itself as an increased incidence of infectious diseases and an increase in the production of autoantibodies, which lead to a propensity to develop autoimmune-related diseases (Hayflick, 1996; Weinert & Timiras, 2003) (Box 2–3). Nat. Physical exercise and the renin angiotensin system: prospects in the COVID-19. Clin. 9:657. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00657, da Silveira, M. P., da Silva Fagundes, K. K., Bizuti, M. R., Starck, É, Rossi, R. C., and de Resende e Silva, D. T. (2020). Immunol. Programmed Theory Noteworthy, another rationale (Terrazzano et al., 2020) for using mTOR inhibitors in therapy for COVID-19 is derived from the original field of their medical application, which is the prevention of allotransplant rejection by inhibiting immune responses against foreign antigens. This hormone, secreted by the adrenal glands, diminishes over the lifetime of an individual. Environ. These proposals are reviewed in the context of attributing the molecular targets of these drugs to the signaling pathways between the sensors of resource availability and the molecular mechanisms that allocate resources to storage, growth and reproduction or to self-maintenance and repair. The reserves are obviously limited by the ability of the circulatory system, including microcirculation, to supply blood-borne energy substrates and regulatory factors to relevant cells and tissues. Cross-linkage agents have been found in unsaturated fats; in polyvalent metal ions like aluminum, zinc, and magnesium; and in association with excessive radiation exposure. Hassan, S. M., Jawad, M. J., Ahjel, S. W., Singh, R. B., Singh, J., Awad, S. M., et al. Do nutrients and other bioactive molecules from foods have anything to say in the treatment against COVID-19? The primary question being addressed relates to the factors that trigger the actual aging process in organisms. Mitigation of the replication of SARS-CoV-2 by nitric oxide in vitro. An important general issue in the crosstalk between physiology, gerontology, and epidemiology is the interpretation of the parameter γ of the Gompertz model (see section “Introduction”), which appears the same whether the model is applied to the general mortality or to COVID-19 CFR, as a measure of the population mean of the rate of decrease in the physiological capacities for resisting deadly impacts. 31, 1068–1077.e3. Antiox. Med. On the other hand, the COVID-19 pandemic becomes a benchmark for gerontology to validate its concepts and advances. In particular, Sverdlov et al. Med. With age, according to this theory, some proteins in the body become cross-linked. (2020). (2018). The neuroendocrine system controls many essential activities with regard to growth and development. (2016). Stochastic Theories Although changes do occur in the activity of various enzymes with aging, studies have not found that all aged cells contain altered or misspecified proteins, nor is aging automatically or necessarily accelerated if misspecified proteins or enzymes are introduced to a cell (Hayflick, 1996; Hayflick, 2004; Schneider, 1992; Weinert & Timiras, 2003). The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication. The implications of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 for at-risk populations. Maturitas 93, 28–33. Beyond the anti-viral therapy: a comprehensive review. The changes in the immune system cannot be precisely explained by an exact cause-and-effect relationship, but they do seem to increase with advancing age. However, in the United States melatonin can already be sold as a dietary supplement, so there is little financial incentive for conducting research. This daunting task is far beyond the scope of the present discussion, whose main objective is limited to pinpointing the overlaps between the basic issues of COVID-19 research and gerontology. May polyphenols have a role against coronavirus infection? These studies also found that rodents fed supplementary melatonin restricted their calorie intake. The foci of biologic theories include explanations of the following: (1) deleterious effects leading to decreasing function of the organism, (2) gradually occurring age-related changes that are progressive over time, and (3) intrinsic changes that can affect all members of a species because of chronologic age. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1818519, Kenyon, C. (2020). No single gerontologic nursing theory has been accepted by this specialty, which requires nurses to use an eclectic approach from other disciplines as the basis of clinical decision making (Comfort, 1970) (Box 2–1). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. II. Semin. Several basic assumptions and concepts have been accepted over the years as guiding research and clinical practice related to aging. Only gold members can continue reading. The ATP/ADP/AMP balance is where the antidiabetic biguanide metformin, another agent suggested to mitigate both aging (Anisimov, 2015; Campbell et al., 2017) and COVID-19 (Bramante et al., 2020; Menendez, 2020; Sharma et al., 2020) can operate. In nervous and muscle tissue, to which free radicals have a high affinity, a substance called lipofuscin has been found and is thought to be indicative of chronologic age. (2018). Cell 177, 622–638. 4. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2016.09.006, Sahebnasagh, A., Saghafi, F., Avan, R., Khoshi, A., Khataminia, M., Safdari, M., et al. Theories of aging attempt to explain this phenomenon of aging as it occurs over the life span, which is thought to be a maximum of approximately 120 years (Cetron & Davies, 1998). Therefore this study seemed to support the Hayflick Limit Theory.
2020 stochastic theory of aging