First, KM can very fruitfully be seen as the undertaking to replicate, indeed to create, the information environment known to be conducive to successful R&D—rich, deep, and open communication and information access—and to deploy it broadly across the firm. Since knowledge resides in people, often the best way to acquire the expertise that you need is to talk with an expert. Durham, Mary. Knowledge management (KM) cannot be achieved with a single definite activity. The implication is clear that KM leaders should be involved in the decision making process for designing the organization’s compensation policy, a process that is very sensitive politically and fraught with difficulty. At the teaching knowledge level, confidence becomes solid as they rise above emotion and look objectively at what there is to know and what they want to know. In many cases the examination will reveal that the culture needs to be modified and enriched. (This was of course before the proliferation of chips in automobiles and the advent of user manuals that were inches thick.) Knowledge management is seen as a business process, integrating knowledge, people, processes, strategies, techniques and technologies. Without a clearly designed process for weeding, the proportion of new and crisp items inevitably declines, the system begins to look stale, and usage and utility falls. I will write a series of articles over the next few weeks to provide more detail of the theory, how it is used to manage knowledge, and how I believe it can be linked to brain development. Using carefully designed stratification principles, items removed from the foreground can be archived and moved to the background but still made available. In particular, the organizational culture needs to be examined in terms of how it rewards information and knowledge sharing. Deletion, of course, is not necessarily loss and destruction. The author is reminded of an occurrence some years ago at Mitre Corporation, a very information driven organization, before the term KM was even bruited about, when the organization wanted to create an expertise location “file/database.” A senior Vice President’s first thought was that just putting the employee’s resumes online would suffice. Since a good alternative description for the second stage of KM is the “it’s no good if they don’t use it” stage, then in that vein, perhaps the best description for the third stage is the “it’s no good if they try to use it but can’t find it” stage. Retrieved from, Ponzi, L., & Koenig, M.E.D. The first step is to be alert and to establish good situational awareness. We need a practical model for education. I would love to hear more about what it might look like for adolescent learners. It involves an assortment of activities. The costs of training a fighter pilot were huge, and if the appropriate characteristics leading to success could be identified, that training could be directed to the most appropriate candidates, and of those trained the most appropriate could be selected for front-line assignment. Personal Communication. In the early days of KM the term ‘Yellow Pages” was commonly used, but now that term is fast disappearing from our common vocabulary, and expertise location is, in any case, rather more precise. In knowledge management education, people will understand knowledge itself. Most successful lessons learned implementations have concluded that such a system needs to be monitored and that there needs to be a vetting and approval mechanism for items that are posted as lessons learned. This practical theory is designed to create awareness of natural ability and build confidence in learning. We go through the process and levels when we learn in the real world, and we can identify everything we learn at each level of knowledge and some part of the process. He is Professor Emeritus at Long Island University and is the former and founding dean of the College of Information and Computer Science. As Durham (2004) points out, there are several key roles to be filled. When learners consciously and repetitively use the nine element learning process to attain each level of knowledge, they inherently become aware of the process itself. In H. Collier (Ed. For a wonderful graphic snapshot of the content management domain go to and look at their Content Technology Vendor Map. The sales rep is compensated based on salary (small), and bonus (large). Communities of practice emphasize, build upon, and take advantage of the social nature of learning within or across organizations. The learning process is used at five levels of knowledge management – building knowledge, using knowledge, organizing knowledge, personalizing knowledge and teaching knowledge. Note that Davenport was at E&Y when he wrote the definition above. (pp. The obvious question that arises is what is there to encourage the sales rep to share this knowledge? The phrase the military uses is "After Action Reports." Then, gathered information is organized, stored, shared, and analyzed using defined techniques. The research domain, and in particular the pharmaceutical industry, has been studied in depth with a focus on identifying the organizational and cultural environmental aspects that lead to successful research (Koenig, 1990, 1992). Education based on a practical theory will become infinitely less controversial than education based on abstract theory. The hallmark terms for the third stage of KM are taxonomy and content. “Educational management is the theory and practice of the organization and administration of existing educational establishments and systems.” “Management implies an orderly way of thinking. The experiences in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria have made this process almost automatic in the military. One antecedent to KM that we have all seen portrayed was the World War II debriefing of pilots after a mission. There is indeed tacit knowledge which only resides in someone’s head. This idea seems straightforward enough, and debriefing the retiree and those with whom he works closely about what issues they perceive as likely to surface or that could possibly arise is obvious common sense. Another major development is the expansion of KM beyond the 20th century vision of KM as the organization’s knowledge as described in the Gartner Group definition of KM. When a current employee has a knowledge need, is he or she likely to look for the information, and if so how likely is it that the employee’s search request will map onto the information in the retiree’s data dump? The hallmark phrases emerging for the third stage are content management (or enterprise content management) and taxonomies. Where did Knowledge Management Come From?. New York, NY: Doubleday Currency. There must be a system whereby someone, typically someone in KM, is assigned the responsibility to do the debriefing, to separate the wheat from the chaff, to create the report, and then to ensure that the lessons learned are captured and disseminated. Knowledge Management is a method for organizing, retrieving, assessing, and sharing important information assets. Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. The term, however, long precedes KM. In 2015 he received the Award of Merit from the Association for Information Science and Technology, the association’s highest award. Davenport, Thomas H. (1994), Saving IT's Soul: Human Centered Information Management. Similarly, the U. S. Navy Submarine Service, after a very embarrassing and lengthy experience of torpedoes that failed to detonate on target, and an even more embarrassing failure to follow up on consistent reports by submarine captains of torpedo detonation failure, instituted a mandatory system of widely disseminated "Captain's Patrol Reports." In knowledge management education, people will understand knowledge itself. Key words: knowledge management, business schools, education, faculty, students, courses. The nature of knowledge and what it means to know something are epistemological questions that have perplexed philosophers for centuries and no resolution looms on the horizon. Michael E.D. When the Internet arose, those organizations quickly realized that an intranet, an in-house subset of the Internet, was a wonderful tool with which to make information accessible and to share it among the geographically dispersed units of their organizations. The retiree, in response to a current issue says "it occurs to me that ..." and elicits a response something like “yes, the situation is somewhat similar , but here ...,” a discussion unfolds, the retiree contributes some of the needed expertise, and a solution is generated. This model is rationalized by abstract theory. It is the process through which organisations create and use their institutional or collective knowledge assets. This is also a good example of the point that despite the fact that KM developed first in a very for-profit corporate context, it is applicable far more broadly, such as in the context of government and civil society. Mazzie, Mark. The concept of intellectual capital, the notion that not just physical resources, capital, and manpower, but also intellectual capital (knowledge) fueled growth and development, provided the justification, the framework, and the seed. The hallmark phrase of Stage 1 was first “best practices,” later replaced by the more politic “lessons learned.”. In some cases, where it is today not so obvious from the name, there is a brief description of what the topic or the enthusiasm consisted of. KMWorld is the leading publisher, conference organizer, and information provider serving the knowledge management, content management, and document management markets. As this recognition of the importance of human factors unfolded, two major themes from the business literature were brought into the KM domain. (2004). These questions need to be carefully thought out and resolved, and the mechanisms designed and put in place, before a lessons-learned system is launched. However, the only solid conclusion of those studies was that the salient characteristic of a good fighter pilot was excellent “situational awareness.”  The problem was that no good predictive test for situational awareness could be developed. Consider the case above of the new pediatric medicine and the discovery of the efficacy of adding orange juice to the recipe. The danger lies in assuming that explicit information is addressed by “collecting” and tacit information by “connecting,” and not examining whether there is potentially important implicit information that could and should be made explicit. The purpose of knowledge management is to ensure that the right information is available to the right people. Knowledge management is essentially about getting the right knowledge to the right person at the right time. Who looks for new members or suggests that the CoP may have outlived its usefulness? The after action comments above under Lessons Learned illustrate this important point. The real utility is likely to be found not directly in the information that the retiree leaves behind, but in new knowledge created by the interaction of the retiree with current employees. Locating the right expert with the knowledge that you need, though, can be a problem, particularly if, for example, the expert is in another country. Required fields are marked *, Walter Smith | Learning Design Consultant, Affective Learning Systems, Dan Donaldson | Associate Provost, Lock Haven University, Laurie Borowicz | President, Kishwaukee College, Joseph Cassidy | Assistant Vice President for Economic Development and Dean of Continuing Education and Public Services, College of DuPage, Nina Morel | Executive Director of Coaching and Leadership Development in the College of Business, Lipscomb University. This book introduces the application of knowledge management (KM) theories, practices, and tools in school organization for sustainable development. Why not? The Captain's Patrol Reports, however, were very clearly designed to encourage analytical reporting, with reasoned analyses of the reasons for operational failure and success. The changes needed in corporate culture to facilitate and encourage information and knowledge sharing can be major and profound. In contrast to conventional education, an alternative education system would be based on knowledge management and rationalized by a practical learning theory based in a natural learning process. Duhon, Bryant (1998), It's All in our Heads. Consequently, the applications of learning theories are discretionary and can be used to rationalize just about anything. Debate over education as a true profession will cease to exist. A good indicator of the shift from the first to the second stage of KM is that for the 1998 Conference Board conference on KM, there was, for the first time, a noticeable contingent of attendees from HR, human resource departments. So there is a place for them. It became clear that KM implementation would involve changes in the corporate culture, in many cases rather significant changes. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 139-145. The latter approach is typically based on email traffic but can include other social networking communications such as Twitter, Facebook, and Linkedin. Human factors design became an important component of KM. At EK, we’ve adopted a concise definition of knowledge management: Knowledge Management involves the people, process, culture, and enabling technologies necessary to Capture, Manage, Share, and Find information. Increasingly KM is seen as ideally encompassing the whole bandwidth of information and knowledge likely to be useful to an organization, including knowledge external to the organization—knowledge emanating from vendors, suppliers, customers, etc., and knowledge originating in the scientific and scholarly community, the traditional domain of the library world. (2004). The first of these was Senge’s work on the learning organization (Senge, Peter M., 1990 The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization.) What is still probably the best graphic to try to set forth what constitutes KM, is the graphic developed by IBM for the use of their own KM consultants. This is the level of emotional control where they stand and say “look at how much I know” and “look at what I can do”. Electronic linkage is not essential, of course, but since KM arose in the consulting community from the awareness of the potential of intranets to link geographically dispersed organizations, this orientation is understandable. This raises the issue, discussed below, that KM is much more than content management. When and how (under what rules) are items removed? knowledge management tool and features that are implemented in TIM and some problems that hindered knowledge management practices at TIM. The list is impressively long, and all these topics and enthusiasms are related to the management of information and knowledge, or the management of information processing functions. They need not necessarily be three separate people, but in some cases they will need to be. Koenig, M.E.D. Later in this article, its stages of development will also be recapped. These systems are now commonly known as expertise location systems. Peter Drucker once commented that the product of the pharmaceutical industry wasn’t pills, it was information. There are typically three sources from which to supply data for an expertise locator system: (1) employee resumes, (2) employee self-identification of areas of expertise (typically by being requested to fill out a form online), and (3) algorithmic analysis of electronic communications from and to the employee. Data analytics and machine learning were powerful tools to help accomplish this, but notice the word “help.” Those tools will not replace the need for good and intelligent human guidance, training, and oversight. Knowledge Management in Education book. The metaphor that was used was that the interface, the Desktop Interface, should appear almost intuitively obvious, like the dashboard of an automobile. What is often very extensive is the amount of implicit information that could have been made explicit, but has not been. It can further be argued that the typical new topic or enthusiasm, the cloud and big data for example, can be seen as emerging from within KM. The additional definition of KM above, “Yet One More Definition of KM,” the forest of the trees, also makes the case that the definition of KM is now very broad. Knowledge Directions, 1(1), 90-96. In this piece, we’ll expand on that definition of knowledge management with some concrete examples, and then illustrate exactly why knowledge management is such an important area of focus for businesses and for employee support teams like IT, HR, and Finance. Nowadays, people are aware of the worth of knowledge and the styles to obtain, recognize, capture, save and leverage it, so that knowledge can be shared without losing it; in the other words … The third stage continues today and is expanding. Consequently, he encouraged the development of CoPs and made that a focus of his attention. New York: Oxford University Press. What You Know You Know — and Don’t Know. The second was Nonaka’s work on “tacit” knowledge and how to discover and cultivate it (Nonaka, Ikujiro & Takeuchi, Hirotaka, 1995 The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation.) The timing was propitious, as the enthusiasm for intellectual capital (see below) in the 1980s, had primed the pump for the recognition of information and knowledge as essential assets for any organization. Examples of this include responding positively to change, embracing technological understanding, developing critical awareness, thinking in new ways that cross traditional boundaries like culture or subject disciplines and imagining many futures. Current education models are essentially abstract. This is now not just a stream within the annual KMWorld Conference, but has become an overlapping conference in its own right. The analysis of such information will be based on resources, documents, people and their skills. How long do items stay in the system? In 2006, KMWorld added a two-day workshop entitled Taxonomy Boot Camp, which not only still continues today, and is a day longer, but has also expanded to international locations. That it has not been is usually not a failure, but usually simply a cost-effective decision, usually taken unconsciously, that it is not worth the effort. At the initial knowledge building level, confidence is low because learners have to depend on others directly or indirectly to make the process work. Sales of the drug commenced well but soon flagged. Knowledge management is often associated with information technology but it is an integral part of many organizations. It would be very hard to come up with a very much shorter list of management topics and enthusiasms of the same era that were not related to the management of information and knowledge or to the management of information processing functions. This level can also be called the self-directed learning level because we can use it to facilitate our own learning. In today's world, information is readily available at your fingertips. 23-26), Medford N.J., Information Today, for the American Society for Information Science. It became obvious that human and cultural dimensions needed to be incorporated. At the KMWorld 2000 Conference, a track on Content Management appeared for the first time, and by the 2001 KMWorld Conference, Content Management had become the dominant track. It is based upon the distinction between collecting stuff (content) and connecting people. Looked at in this light, KM extends into environmental scanning and competitive intelligence. These assets may include databases, documents, policies, procedures, and previously un-captured expertise and experience in individual workers. However, a new product needs a name, and the name that emerged was Knowledge Management. At the personalization level, confidence improves even more as they integrate all the various things that they know. Koenig, M, E. D.  (2000), The Evolution of Knowledge Management, in T. K. Srikantaiah and M. E. D. Koenig, Knowledge Management for the Information Professional. The phrase then retreated into relative obscurity until it was resuscitated by Jeff Cooper, a firearms guru, and others in the context of self-defense. Koenig, M.E.D. KM techniques are very relevant to this issue. The classic one-line definition of Knowledge Management was offered up by Tom Davenport early on (Davenport, 1994): “Knowledge Management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge.” Probably no better or more succinct single-line definition has appeared since. Knowledge management is any system that helps people in an organization share, access, and update business knowledge and information. Information Research, 8(1). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. These are usually referred to be knowledge activities. One sample search was for employees with expertise in “Defense Logistics,” a topic relevant to an RFP that Mitre was bidding on. The solution arises partially from the retiree’s knowledge, but more from the interaction. KM as conceived now, and this expansion arrived early on, includes relevant information assets from wherever relevant. At the organization level, learners become more confident because they are integrating new knowledge with similar things they already know. Are postings open or does someone vet or edit the postings? ), Annual Review of Information Science and Technology: Volume 25, (pp. Learning becomes a dynamic, multidimensional, integrated, interactive process and knowledge is managed efficiently and effectively in school, in college and university, on the job, in our personal lives and in the community. Stay up-to-date on everything KM - Subscribe to KMWorld NewsLinks and more today. Knowledge Management 3 Why Knowledge Management Application of Knowledge Management (KM) lie in the below four key areas Globalization of Business: Organizations today are more universal i.e., they are operating in multiple sites, multilingual, and multicultural in nature. Knowledge Management Explained. It is almost trite now to observe that we are in the post-industrial information age and that we are all information workers. Who, if anyone, is to decide what constitutes a worthwhile lesson learned? Much more likely to be useful is to keep the retiree involved, maintaining him or her in the CoPs, involved in the discussions concerning current issues, and findable through expertise locator systems. Management is not a mystique. Such printed credentials can be patent rights and instruction booklet. It is the productive use of knowledge that is the key to success. Knowledge Management: Another Management Fad? Knowledge management is the problem of capturing, organizing, and retrieving information in an organization. What might be a best practice in North American culture, for example, might well not be a best practice in another culture. The term most often used for this is Enterprise Search. In the context of KM, CoPs are generally understood to mean electronically linked communities. While incorporating knowledge management into any organization, the importance of knowledge must remain a priority. One interesting way to look at KM is that, in fact, KM has expanded to become and is now the recognition of that forest of trees (McInerney and Koenig, 2011), that KM is a much better and more recognized name than “information driven management.” It is interesting that this stream of trees, to mix metaphors, has dwindled dramatically since the appearance of KM as an important topic. The concept and the terminology of KM sprouted within the management consulting community. Building Confidence as the Central Focus of Education. Analysis of knowledge management in IFAD 23 IV. 1. Several commercial software packages to match queries with expertise are available. The availability of the internet provided the tool. The KM community uses the term “tacit knowledge” to mean what is not “explicit knowledge,” and in that usage what is usually meant by “tacit” is implicit knowledge, that which is not explicit or formally captured in some fashion, most obviously the knowledge in people’s heads. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishers for the American Society for Information Science. Most business enthusiasms grow rapidly and reach a peak after about five years, and then decline almost as rapidly as they grew. From there the phrase entered the KM vocabulary. In Martha E. Williams (Ed. The answer was a major project to taxonomize, organize, index, and retrieve massive amounts of data and records. However, this procedure needs to be in place before things start to look stale, and a good taxonomically based retrieval system needs to be created. Management fashion: lifecycles, triggers, and collective learning processes. At the using knowledge level, confidence increases because learners have enough knowledge to use the processes to do things on their own while still learning. In other words, there was the recognition that “If you build it they will come” is a recipe that can easily lead to quick and embarrassing failure if human factors are not sufficiently taken into account. The lessons learned concept or practice is one that might be described as having been birthed by KM, as there is very little in the way of a direct antecedent. However, Knowledge Management can best and most quickly be explained by recapping its origins. Wenger, Etienne C. (1998). If the list is so long, and they have so major a theme in common, has there not been some recognition that all these trees constitute a forest? Three Critical Roles for Knowledge Management Workspaces. A more useful and nuanced categorization is explicit, implicit, and tacit. Knowledge management is the preparation of categorizing, encouraging, and calculating of individual’s procedures and systems within the organization to make sure that knowledge-associated possessions are enhanced and efficiently engaged. Knowledge management is the systematic capture of insights and experiences to enable an organization to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge The term apparently was first used in its current context at McKinsey in 1987 for an internal study on their information handling and utilization (McInerney and Koenig, 2011). It consists of a cycle of creating, sharing, structuring and auditing knowledge, in order to maximize the effectiveness of an organization’s collective knowledge. Some questions that need to be thought about and resolved are: KM was initially driven primarily by IT, information technology, and the desire to put that new technology, the Internet, to work and see what it was capable of. Risks to successful knowledge management 27 Appendices I. Knowledge Management: Another Management Fad?" London: Royal Society of Chemistry. However, there is a major drawback. One sales rep (what the pharmaceutical industry used to call detail men), however, by chatting with her customers, discovered the reason for the disappointing sales and also recognized the solution. Education is about learning, but it is not conducted on the basis of the way learning works. Knowledge management, also referr… 23-36). A major component of this second stage was the design of easy-to-use and user-friendly systems. INTRODUCTION. Knowledge management tools provide fast, intuitive access to the right information across any number of sources and at a single point of inquiry. This aspect of KM might be described as Librarianship 101, putting your organization’s information and data up online, plus selected external information, and providing the capability to seamlessly shift to searching, more or less, the entire web. Who fills the various roles of: manager, moderator, and thought leader? The actions at the end of that sentence are the most critical component.

what is knowledge management in education

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