BUYER: Target audience action objectives B. Roloff and G.R. Quadrant dimensions as dichotomies in practice. For example, an informational advertisement addressing the problem removal motivation might employ the sequence: disappointment + hope + relief. Attraction. On the emotional dimension, we have borrowed the terms suggested by Wells (1981) to categorize the predominant type of motivation governing purchase of the brand. Thirdly, advertising tactics for these models are listed. It used to be used for sales training. Health Belief Model . Brand awareness is poorly conceptualized in most advertising plans. Expertise is relevant to informational communication models, both low and high involvement, because perceived expertise enhances attention to and learning of (low involvement) or acceptance of (high involvement) information presented in support of brand attitude. Most of the models taught to students today are built under the base of the old learning theory: A theory that has been the foundation to what advertising … Ads mirror changing loyalties. Acceptance is manifest consciously in the phenomenon of "cognitive responses" (Cialdini, Petty and Cacioppo 1981; Hovland, Janis and Kelly 1953; Perloff and Brock 1980; Wright 1980) which seem to be prerequisite for shifts in high involvement attitudes and, we would argue, for shifts in these other non-rote communication effects. In contrast, it is only in high involvement models that the textbook attitude principles of "latitude of acceptance/rejection" and the careful tailoring of claims to the target audience's prior or initial attitude are truly applicable (Houston and Rothschild 1977). Beliefs, in low involvement attitude formation, are extremely polarized buy only weakly or tentatively held, subject to post-trial usage experience.] and J.T. High involvement purchase decisions dictate that advertising claims must be believed and accepted before purchase action will be considered. Low involvement/transformational campaigns also demand high effective frequency (Wells 1981) to generate and maintain brand attitude or "image.". and W.R. Swinyard (1982), "Information Response Models: An Integrated Approach," Journal of Marketing, 46 (Winter), 81-93. Involvement, and thus the cognitive classification of brand attitude, must be determined for the brand and for the particular target audience. The following theory suggests that if there is a brand, it also should … C. Executional Processing (Ad) Communication models can, if desired, cease detailed exposition with the establishment of communication objectives. The use of a presenter, therefore, is not an arbitrary decision. The neat thing about studying memory is that few things are more meta; we use our brains to study our brains, then try to remember how we remember… I know, insane in the membrane! 11-77-46. In our checklist the manager is asked to nominate the decision-maker by role and by action (Webster and Wind 1972) as to whether the target audience individual should: propose the brand for consideration (initiator), recommend it (influencer), make the final decision (decider), order or buy it (purchaser), or use or consumer it (user). Advertising, Theories, Models, Communication Identifiers URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-846 Local ID: 2082/1206 OAI: DiVA, id: diva2:238064 Uppsok Social and Behavioural Science, Law. Referring to Figure 2, it can be seen that brand attitude -- from an advertising communication standpoint -- has two strategic components: (A) correct emotional portrayal of the motivation, and (B) adequate logical support for perceived brand delivery on the motivation. Inc. Nelson, P.E. Inc. Nelson, P.E. It is therefore meaningful to regard both brand awareness and brand attitude as universal communication objectives.] (1979), "Issue Involvement Can Increase or Decrease Persuasion by Enhancing Message Relevant Cognitions," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (June), 1915-1926. One of such theories/models is the DAGMAR communication spectrum theory (Karlsson, 2007). Little, J.D.C. In our approach (Rossiter and Percy 1983), two communication effects require only rote learning during processing. A pre measure is not sensitizing because consumers consciously experience attitude shifts with informational ads. In the informational motels, correct emotional portrayal, which usually follows a negative emotion to positive emotion problem-solution format, is also important, but less so relative to the cognitive component. On the cognitive dimension, we utilize the concept of involvement or perceived risk associated with buying the brand. Krugman's 1972 point that the first exposure of a fleeting broadcast ad allows only a "What is it?" The next section of the checklist, Part B, differentiates the fundamental advertising communication models via communication processes. Power. Zajonc, R. (1980), "Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences," American Psychologist, 35 (February), 151-175. (1969), "The Nature of Attitudes and Attitude Change," in The Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. Step C-3: Points to be Accepted. For example, Coca-Cola probably does not have to address the cola category need in advertising Coke; whereas in advertising for Diet Coke, the category need for diet cola may require reminding, or selling, the other two options in the checklist. Advertising, Public relations, Marketing and Consumer Behavior Business Communication Communication / General Communication Barriers Communication in Practice Communication Models … Step B-4: Brand Purchase Intention. Both of … (1965), "The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement," Public Opinion Quarterly, 29 (Fall), 349-356. The checklist item 3-3 for brand attitude is divided into two sections. If purchase facilitation is not required, the manager so indicates on the checklist and omits this objective. However, the eight advertising communication models (differentiated by the two types of brand awareness and the four brand attitude strategies) require concomitant variations in the way ads are processed and the schedule on which they are best delivered. However, the solutions are typically elaborate and expensive. (1974) Cognitive Organization and Change: An Information Processing Approach, Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 14 Marketing: A Critical Textbook principal thinkers in marketing throughout the twentieth century worked there, and as such it is natural that we talk about these people, institutions and their theoretical contributions. Rather, our approach postulates a "heterarchy" of effects, at both the processing step and the communication effects step, as will be explained later. A more detailed exposition of the points summarized here can be found in those chapters. There are, however, two effects that are universal objectives -- brand awareness, and brand attitude. [It should be clearly stated that the tactics recommended for brand awareness and brand attitude are hypothetical at this point. These are of course the affective and cognitive components of attitude. Also "action" can include a variety of desired target behaviors on the part of distributors or consumers, such as sales inquiries, visits to retail outlets, and other forms of purchase-related behaviors whenever purchase is consummated by personal selling or other marketing inputs.] Step B-1: Category Need. In the real world of advertising management, adequate research often does not exist nor can it afford to be done. A further note about the checklist is that the manager is asked to indicate whether the input for each component of the model stems from research or from judgment. Nara Youn, Hongik University, Nathan Dhaliwal, University of British Columbia, Canada In order for advertising communication to be successful, the prospective buyers in the target audience must: (1) be exposed to an ad or series of ads in a campaign, via media, (2) process the elements of each at in the intended manner so that the advertising results in (3) communication effects, connected to the brand, which in appropriate circumstances produce (4) action, such as purchase of the brand. Credibility. Brand recognition is not correlated with brand recall (Thorson and Rothschild 1983) and so the substitute use of a brand recall measure for a brand recognition objective is inappropriate and misleading. However, it is relevant in hard-sell campaigns where the purpose is to induce immediate intention to act. Rather than discuss all eight, which are relatively easy to piece together, we will examine just the three dimensions of difference. The testing of low involvement ads differs from the testing of high involvement ads in several ways. Advertising Theory or theories therefore try to explain how and why advertising is effective in influencing behaviors and accomplishing its objectives. The kid glove response registration represented by semantic differential-type "image" measures is the most valid way of testing the typically fragile effects of transformational advertising. Brand benefit beliefs are also more appropriately measured on the "softer" semantic differential type of rating scales, anchored by "image adjectives" than on Likert-type agree-disagree scales. Visibility or recognizability, the strong characteristic of celebrity presenters, is likely to heighten brand awareness -- notably brand recall, although the advertiser must be careful that the presenter does not obscure the presentation of the brand itself. Three to four exposures of the test commercials represent a more valid simulation of real world conditions than just one or two exposures. Similarly, by identifying the main motivation, it is comparatively straightforward to decide whether the predominant executional focus of the ad should be informational, or transformational. To complete the exposure plan checklist, the media planner is asked to list other factors such as continuity, seasonality, and geographic market considerations that will affect the plan (Step D-3). However, the reduced media weight tactic may be overruled by the brand attitude strategy, as explained in the next section. Space limitations again preclude a detailed exposition of these tactics (Rossiter and Percy 1983) but several important distinctions are reviewed next. Step C-1: Emotional Portrayal. Sak Onkvisit DBA Professor of Marketing, San Jose State … The Strong Theory. the benefit beliefs to be learned, An overall measure of brand attitude is taken, usually relative to other brands in the evoked set (except in the low involvement/transformational model as explained below). Step C-2: Points to be Learned. Colley, R. (1961), Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results, New York: Association of National Advertisers. (1983), "Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion: Application to Advertising," in L. Percy and A.G. Woodside, eds., Advertising and Consumer Psychology, Lexington, MA:Lexington, 3-23. 2), 3-15. Institute of Technology Larry Percy, HEM/CREAMER, Inc. ABSTRACT - A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). (Note that in brand recognition, the process is reversed: brand recognition is the cue and category need is the response. Brand recall campaigns typically demand high effective frequency to instill the brand or to protect against competitive brand learning. In the checklist, as with all the communication effects, the manager is asked to mike this decision explicitly. In the low involvement motels, claims stated (informational) or visually implied (transformational) about the brand need only be tentatively believed, to a degree that is adequate to prompt trial of the brand (cf. The shift from solely printed ads to the 21st Century’s digital technology driven advertising has been quick and colorful [As usual we use the term "brand" in a broad sense to include any type of product or service that the advertising is designed to promote. They are based on true facts. Section 3(b) for brand attitude identifies the brand attitude strategy that will meet the brand attitude objective. Purchase facilitation is not usually a communication objective for national brand advertising although it frequently occurs in retail and direct mail advertising. However, the reduced media weight tactic may be overruled by the brand attitude strategy, as explained in the next section. Industrial advertising, for instance, often targets sales inquiries as the intended action rather than purchase directly. This model falls into the Cognitivist, or Strong Theory, of consumer behavior because it relies on the belief that customers are thinking, evaluating, and acting intentionally through a linear, cognitive purchase process… The other is the number of recall responses that are allowed; this number should correspond with the typical evoked set size from which consumers select the brand in the real world. Wyer, R.S. Hierarchical models have dominated advertising theory, and, of these models, the AIDA model is one of the most widely applied. Secondly, four fundamental brand attitude strategies are described which, together with two prior types of brand awareness alternatives, produces a total of eight basic advertising communication models. An advertising model is the strategic use of an advertising medium, with the goal of reaching a specific target audience. For an advertising model, it is essential that it is represented by a model agency that sets a high (justified) daily fee right from the start, as it is possible that subsequent jobs of this kind in the same product groups will be omitted. These will not be discussed further in this article. Media planners usually select a primary medium for a campaign, then supplement this with one or more secondary media to reinforce particular communication objectives or to reach prospects omitted in primary media coverage. Rossiter, 3.R. The ad blurs the boundaries between reality and a dream. The brand attitude strategy classification produces four fundamental advertising communication models which, when combined with the two brand awareness alternatives described earlier, produce a total of eight models. Step C-4: Use of a Presenter The use of a presenter (or endorser) in ads is another decision that often confronts managers. Mandler, G. (1979), "Emotion," in The First Century of Experimental Psychology, E. Hearst, ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Public service campaigns on safety and health (problem avoidance motivation) frequently use powerful, authoritative presenters to good effect so that the message will be accepted almost as a commandment or a duty rather than as a message the audience can freely accept or reject. Example: A dentist may be employed in an ad that advocates and encourages the public to use a particular toothbrush or a toothpaste advertisement because he uses the same. The consumer decision making process Porters Five Forces . Ray, M.L. Rather than discuss all eight, which are relatively easy to piece together, we will examine just the three dimensions of difference. 4S Web Marketing Mix Constantinides. If so, it is pointless to try to measure purchase intention prior to the event. Finn, D.W. (1982), "Try It, You'll Like It: A Case Against the Low-Involvement Hierarchy," Texas Christian University, M.J. Neeley School of Business, working paper no. Media exposure schedule. The Weak Theory This theory also supported by Ehrenberg (1988, 1997) opposes the other one, it hypotheses that consumer purchasing decisions are driven by habit rather than exposure to advertising. The emotional (motivational and energizing) and cognitive (directional) components of brand attitude form the basis for a four-fold typology of brand attitude strategies (Figure 3). Finally, since informational ads are supposed to work immediately, it is appropriate to include a purchase intention measure. Involvement is categorized according to the economic theory developed by Nelson (1970), which classifies the brand purchase decision as either "low involvement"Or "high involvement" (search/conviction required). In brand attitude processing, the target audience must learn further associations between the brand and specific benefits (related to the motivation). All the above theories have their merits and demerits. For the present article, the authors would like to acknowledge the comments of Robert J. Donovan, then visiting associate processor of marketing at New York University, Geraldine Fennell of Fordham University, as well as,research personnel at Ogilvy & Mather/New York and Ogilvy & Mather/Australia.]. However, it is not yet reasonable to refer to these as alternative advertising communication models, since these decisions mainly refer to alternative targets of the communication rather than to alternative communication processes. Here it is the believed message that counts. The brand awareness objective with brand recognition models is to get the package recognized in a typical competing package display setting. The intended outcome of processing is to produce communication effects in long-term or semipermanent memory, which are "brand-centered." Power. Open-ended responses are then coded as correct if they mirror or closely paraphrase the advertiser's intended message, i.e. The switch from printed ads to the digital technology driven ads in the 21st century has been rapid and flamboyant. Following the popular cognitive metaphor, processing responses occur in short-term or "active" memory, and are "ad-centered." 110. The whole series of steps should be regarded as a potentially inter-looping mental heterarchy, punctuated by occasional behavioral acts such as purchase. Sheth (1969), The TheorY of Buyer Behavior, New York, Wiley. Not only does this ensure that all components are addressed, it also highlights areas where specific types of research would be of value to yield sounder conclusions. Discontinuous innovations (Robertson 1971) invariably have to "sell" the category need in their advertising; new brand entries in a well known category may have to remind the target audience of the category to which the brand is aspiring; but established brands rarely have to address category need unless, as Campbell's Soup did recently, they are trying to stimulate category sales of which they reap a large share.

advertising theories and models

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